Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth.
Inflammation extends deeply into the tissues and gradually removes the gum from the teeth and damages the bone that supports the teeth roots. If not treated directly, teeth initially show intense mobility and are eventually lost.
Periodontitis is considered the most common cause of tooth loss in adults, and its frequency of appearance is very high in age over 45 years. Periodontal disease can be diagnosed by the periodontist expert or by the dentist at an early stage.
The patient usually realizes the disease at a very advanced stage. Periodontitis, depending on the loss of adhesion, is distinguished in early, intermediate or advanced and depending on its extent in localized or generalized.
The symptoms commonly associated with periodontal disease are:
- Bleeding of the gums in brushing or on their own
- Red, swollen or sensitive gums
- Gums that have subsided (gum recession)
- Tooth mobility (sometimes small and sometimes large)
- Gums detached from the tooth
- Immigration (moving) of teeth
- Persistent stench
- Puss between tooth and gums
Agents predisposing periodontitis:
- Insufficient removal of the dental plaque from the teeth
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Systematic diseases
- Diseases that affect the immune system (eg aids)
- Hormonal disorders
- Traumatic occlusion
- Poor oral hygiene
- Drug intake
1. Conservative treatment:
With special tools, plaque, microbes and toxins are removed from the root, painlessly with local anesthesia. The patient does not feel pain either during the procedure or after going home. The disadvantage is that this treatment has finite abilities to fully resolve the periodontal problem, with the result that the destruction continues at a slower pace. Usually 4-6 visits are required.
Oral hygiene instructions are given to the patient (correct tooth brushing, interdental brushes and sometimes oral solution and / or gel). The ideal time to evaluate the effects of conservative periodontal treatment is 3 months.
2. Surgical treatment:
In some cases, where periodontal disease has gone far enough, it is necessary, after the conservative treatment, to take a surgical arrangement at selected points of the mouth. Surgical treatment, when required, always follows the conservative one.
A cut is made (the gums are opened locally with microsurgical methods) the tissues are settled and then they are stitched. The advantages are the regeneration of lost periodontal tissues, sometimes the reduction of periodontal sockets, easier access to the root surface of the tooth with tartar deposition, more accurate prognosis.
The patient feels pain after surgery. The drawback is that teeth cold and hot sensitivities are present after surgery and until healing.
3. Conservative laser therapy:
Additional use of laser in conservative treatment greatly reduces the likelihood of requiring periodontal surgeries. In conjunction with conservative treatment, periodontal laser therapy (LPT) is effective allowing the patient to stay healthy and live comfortably, controlling the disease.
Periodontal laser therapy (LPT) is a safe and absolutely painless treatment. At the same time, there is no sensitivity to the teeth and it is particularly indicated for patients with health problems such as diabetes, heart diseases, patients with allergies to antibiotics, haemophilia, HIV, periodontitis with socket depth etc.
The laser energy is transferred to the periodontal pouch to remove the infected gum tissue and disinfect the micro-environment of the pouch by killing the bacteria and by inactivating the toxins on the surface of the tooth root and the gum tissue, leading to the activation of the healing process.